Facial reconstruction is performed by plastic surgeons for the repair of more complex facial conditions. Surgical techniques are used to rebuild features of the face, or to rebuild the face completely. Plastic surgeons remove scarred skin or realign broken bones. These procedures could include individuals suffering from burn trauma, accidental injuries or from illness or genetic deformities. With some patients, skin grafting may be used.
Evolution of Facial Reconstruction
The history of facial reconstruction dates back almost 3,000 years. Egyptians and Indians performed reconstruction on areas of the face such as the nose, ears and lips, along with skin grafting. The bones and mummies of the dead were preserved. Sculptures and death masks were created with the results of the models being very realistic and life-like. During the Greek and Roman period, bone reconstruction took place, with information outlined in scrolls. In the Middle Ages, plastic surgery was prohibited because of ethical reasons and spiritual beliefs. Dead bodies would be laid out onto the streets for identification purposes, with the later introduction of building on top of the skull. During the Renaissance period, more interest grew with how the body moved and worked, with the building of wax models. The first scientific reconstructions were in 1883 by a German doctor. In the 20th century, technical developments with the reconstruction of features and facial bones began. In the early 21st century, computerized facial reconstruction has brought increased efficiency and success with facial reconstruction.